The “e” in e-Governance stands for ‘electronic’. Thus, e-Governance is basically associated with carrying out the functions and achieving the results of governance through the utilization of ICT (Information and Communications Technology).
relates to safeguarding the legal rights of all citizens, an equally
important aspect is concerned with ensuring equitable access to public
services and the benefits of economic growth to all. It also ensures
government to be transparent in its dealings, accountable for its
activities and faster in its responses as part of good governance.
would require the government to change itself – its processes, its
outlook, laws, rules and regulations and also its way of interacting
with the citizens. It would also require capacity building within the
government and creation of general awareness about e-Governance among
provides efficient storing and retrieval of data, instantaneous transmission of information, processing information and data faster than the earlier manual systems, speeding up governmental processes, taking decisions expeditiously and judiciously, increasing transparency and enforcing accountability. It also helps in increasing the reach of government – both geographically and demographically.
India, the main thrust for e-Governance was provided by the launching
of NICNET in 1987 – the national satellite-based computer network. This
was followed by the launch of the District Information System of the
National Informatics Centre (DISNIC) programme to computerize all
district offices in the country for which free hardware and software was
offered to the State Governments. NICNET was extended via the State
capitals to all district headquarters by 1990. In the ensuing years,
with ongoing computerization, tele-connectivity and internet
connectivity established a large number of e-Governance initiatives,
both at the Union and State levels.
Types of Government Interaction in e-governance.
- G2G: Government to Government
- G2C: Government to Citizen
- G2B: Government to Business
- G2E: Government to Employee
Some Initiatives in the same field
- Government to Citizen (G2C) Initiatives:
- Computerization of Land Records: In collaboration with NIC. Ensuring that landowners get computerized copies of ownership, crop and tenancy and updated copies of Records of Rights (RoRs) on demand.
- Bhoomi Project: Online delivery of Land Records. Self-sustainable
e-Governance project for the computerized delivery of 20 million rural
land records to 6.7 million farmers through 177 Government-owned kiosks
in the State of Karnataka
- Gyandoot: It is an Intranet-based Government to Citizen (G2C)
service delivery initiative. It was initiated in the Dhar district of
Madhya Pradesh in January 2000 with the twin objective of providing
relevant information to the rural population and acting as an interface
between the district administration and the people.
- Lokvani Project in Uttar Pradesh: Lokvani
is a public-private partnership project at Sitapur District in Uttar
Pradesh which was initiated in November, 2004. Its objective is to
provide a single window, self-sustainable e-Governance solution with
regard to handling of grievances, land record maintenance and providing a
mixture of essential services.
- Project FRIENDS in Kerala: FRIENDS
(Fast, Reliable, Instant, Efficient Network for the Disbursement of
Services) is a Single Window Facility providing citizens the means to
pay taxes and other financial dues to the State Government.The services
are provided through FRIENDS Janasevana Kendrams located in the district headquarters.
- e-Mitra Project in Rajasthan:
e-Mitra is an integrated project to facilitate the urban and the rural
masses with maximum possible services related to different state
government departments through Lokmitra-Janmitra Centers/Kiosks.
- e-Seva (Andhra Pradesh): This project is designed to provide ‘Government to Citizen’ and ‘e-Business to Citizen’ services. The highlight of the eSeva project
is that all the services are delivered online to consumers /citizens by
connecting them to the respective government departments and providing
online information at the point of service delivery.
- Admission to Professional Colleges – Common Entrance Test (CET):
With the rapid growth in the demand as well as supply of professional education, the process of admission to these institutions became a major challenge in the early 1990s. Recourse was then taken to ICT to make the process of admission transparent and objective. One of the pioneering efforts was made by Karnataka. The State Government decided to conduct a common entrance test based on which admission to different colleges and disciplines was made.
- Government to Business (G2B) Initiatives:
- e-Procurement Project in Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat:
To reduce the time and cost of doing business for both vendors and government.
- MCA 21: By the Ministry of Corporate
Affairs. The project aims at providing easy and secure online access to
all registry related services provided by the Union Ministry of Corporate Affairs to corporates and other stakeholders at any time and in a manner that best suits them.
- Government to Government (G2G) Initiatives:
- Khajane Project in Karnataka: It
is a comprehensive online treasury computerization project of the
Government of Karnataka. The project has resulted in the computerization
of the entire treasury related activities of the State Government and
the system has the ability to track every activity right from the
approval of the State Budget to the point of rendering accounts to the
- SmartGov (Andhra Pradesh): SmartGov
has been developed to streamline operations, enhance efficiency through
workflow automation and knowledge management for implementation in the
Andhra Pradesh Secretariat.
National E-governance Plan
National e-Governance Plan (NeGP) has been formulated by the Department
of Electronics and Information Technology (DEITY) and Department of
Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances (DARPG) in 2006.
NeGP aims at improving delivery of Government services to citizens and
businesses with the following vision: “Make all Government services
accessible to the common man in his locality, through common service
delivery outlets and ensure efficiency, transparency & reliability
of such services at affordable costs to realise the basic needs of the
Central government initiatives as mission mode projects (MMP)
Government of India has recognized the need to modernize the Central
Government offices through the introduction of Information and
Communications Technology. e-Office is aimed at increasing the usage of
work flow and rule based file routing, quick search and retrieval of
files and office orders, digital signatures for authentication, forms
and reporting components.
Immigration, Visa and Foreigner’s Registration & Tracking (IVFRT)
has emerged as a key tourist destination, besides being a major
business and service hub. Immigration Check Post is the first point of
contact that generates public and popular perception about the country,
thus necessitating a state of the art system for prompt and
unique identification project was conceived as an initiative that would
provide identification for each resident across the country and would
be used primarily as the basis for efficient delivery of welfare
services. It would also act as a tool for effective monitoring of
various programs and schemes of the government.
pensions MMP is primarily aimed at making the pension/ retirement
related information, services and grievances handling mechanism
accessible online to the needy pensioners, through a combination of
interactive and non-interactive components, and thus, help bridge the
gap between the pensioners and the government.
Banking MMP is yet another step towards improving operational
efficiency and reducing the delays and efforts involved in handling and
settling transactions. The MMP which is being implemented by the banking
industry aims at streamlining various e-services initiatives undertaken
by individual banks. Implementation is being done by the banks
concerned, with the banking Department providing a broad framework and
of Postal Services has been undertaken by the Department of Posts
through computerization and networking of all post offices using a
central server-based system, and setting up of computerized registration
State Mission Mode projects
e-Governance in Municipalities
is a unique initiative of the Government of India conceptualized under
the umbrella of the overall National e-Governance Plan (NeGP) and the
Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (Jnnurm) aimed at
improving operational efficiencies within Urban Local Bodies (ULBs).
Crime and Criminal Tracking Network & Systems
and Criminal Tracking Network & Systems (CCTNS) MMP aims at
creating a comprehensive and integrated system for enhancing the
efficiency and effective policing at all levels and especially at the
Police Station level through adoption of principles of e-Governance, and
creation of a nationwide networked infrastructure for evolution of
IT-enabled state-of-the-art tracking system.
Public Distribution System
of the PDS is envisaged as an end-to-end project covering key
functional areas such as supply chain management including allocation
and utilization reporting, storage and movement of food grains,
grievance redressal and transparency portal, digitization of beneficiary
database, Fair Price Shop automation, etc.
for programme management has been undertaken by the Ministry of Health
& Family Welfare in the Mother and Child Tracking System (MCTS)
programme and the Ministry envisages a more comprehensive use of ICT
including for Hospital Information Systems, supply chain management for
drugs and vaccines, providing ICT tools to ASHA and ANM workers,
programme management of National Rural Health Mission (NRHM), etc
through this MMP.
Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) are saddled with the problems of
inadequate physical and financial resources, technical capabilities and
extremely limited computerization. As a result, the potential of PRIs as
the preferred delivery channel for the schemes of State and Centre as
well as for citizen services has not been fully realized. While some
computerization efforts for PRIs have been made by NIC over the years,
the e-Governance revolution sweeping the country has not touched the
PRIs yet in significant measure. The Ministry of Panchayati Raj,
Government of India has therefore decided to take up the computerization
of PRIs on a mission mode basis.
is one of the 31 Mission Mode Projects under National e Governance Plan
(NeGP) with the DIT, GoI being the nodal ministry. This project aims at
providing support to the basic administrative unit i.e. District
Administration by undertaking backend computerization to enable
electronic delivery of high volume citizen centric government services
which would optimally leverage and utilize the three infrastructure
pillars of State Wide Area Networks (SWAN), State Data Centers (SDC) and
Common Service Centers (CSCs) to deliver services to the citizen at his
National Land Records Modernization Programme (NLRMP)
Project for Computerization of Land Records (CLR) was launched in
1988-89 with the intention to remove the inherent flaws in the manual
system of maintenance and updation of Land Records. In 1997-98, the
scheme was extended to tehsils to start distribution of Records of
Rights to landowners on demand. The focus of the entire operation has
always been to employ state of the art information technology (IT) to
galvanize and transform the existing land records system of the country.
Integrated Mission Mode Projects
of Commerce & Industry (Department of Commerce) has been nominated
as the Nodal Ministry for implementation of e-Government Procurement
(e-GP) Mission Mode Projects (MMP). The vision of the e-Procurement MMP
is “To create a national initiative to implement procurement
reforms, through the use of electronic Government procurement, so as to
make public procurement in all sectors more transparent and efficient”.
e-Court Mission Mode Project (MMP) was conceptualized with a vision to
transform the Indian judiciary by making use of technology. The project
had been developed, following the report submitted by the e-Committee
under Supreme Court on national policy & action plan on
implementation of information communication tools in Indian judiciary.
clear objective – to re-engineer processes and enhance judicial
productivity both qualitatively and quantitatively to make the justice
delivery system affordable, accessible, cost effective, transparent and
e-Biz Mission Mode Project, being executed by Department of Industrial
Policy and Promotion (DIPP), Ministry of Commerce and Industry,
Government of India, was conceptualized with the vision. Its vision is “To
transform the business environment in the country by providing
efficient, convenient, transparent and integrated electronic services to
investors, industries and business throughout the business life cycle”.
Common Services Centres
CSCs would provide high quality and cost-effective video, voice and
data content and services, in the areas of e-governance, education,
health, telemedicine, entertainment as well as other private services. A
highlight of the CSCs is that it will offer web-enabled e-governance
services in rural areas, including application forms, certificates, and
utility payments such as electricity, telephone and water bills.
Direct Cash transfer
facilitate disbursements of Government entitlements like NREGA, Social
Security pension, Handicapped Old Age Pension etc. of any Central or
State Government bodies, using Aadhaar and authentication thereof as
supported by UIDAI.
Aadhar Enabled Payment system (AEPS) :
is a bank led model which allows online interoperable financial
inclusion transaction through the Business correspondent of any bank
using the Aadhaar authentication. This has helped in financial
inclusion. The four Aadhaar enabled basic types of banking transactions
are as follows:-
- Balance Enquiry
- Cash Withdrawal
- Cash Deposit
- Aadhaar to Aadhaar Funds Transfer
Digital India program
This programme has
been envisaged by Department of Electronics and Information Technology
(DeitY). The vision of Digital India aims to transform the country into a
digitally empowered society and knowledge economy. The programme will
be implemented in phases from the current year till 2018.
The Digital India
is transformational in nature and would ensure that Government services
are available to citizens electronically. It would also bring in public
accountability through mandated delivery of government’s services
electronically, a Unique ID and e-Pramaan based on authentic and
standard based interoperable and integrated government applications and
program aims at providing digital infrastructure as a utility to every
citizen as well as high-speed internet as a core utility in all gram
panchayats. The overall scope of this program is “to prepare India for a
knowledge future”, “to make technology central to enabling change” and
“to become an umbrella program covering many departments”
MyGov citizen portal
Prime Minister launched an online platform mygov.nic.in to engage citizens in the task of “good governance” ( surajya )
as he completed 60 days in office on Saturday. MyGov is a
technology-driven platform that would provide people with the
opportunity to contribute towards good governance.
is project for linking the internet with remote villages in the
country. This scheme will broaden the reach of internet services to the
rural areas in the country. The fundamental features of this scheme will
be making the records handy to the government with ease. It also
includes Expansion of internet and commencement of IT-based jobs in
rural areas. It will also boost the use of mobile phones and computers
in rural areas. It will also expand the use of IT in agriculture and
retail trade too.
Digital Cloud for every Indian
issued by the government — education, residential, medical records,
birth certificates, etc. — are to be stored in individual ‘digital
lockers’ and a communication protocol established for government
departments to access them without physically having to see the hard
copy. The purpose of government is that copies of certificates issued by
the government itself not to be carried around by people to government
offices for various services.
is not a replacement for e-Governance, rather it complements e-
Governance. M-Governance, is the use of mobile or wireless to improve
Governance service and information “anytime, anywhere”. Mobile
applications also rely on good back office ICT infrastructure and work
processes. It has potential of using mobile phones as input devices in
certain areas where last mile connectivity becomes issues for simple
data inputs of critical importance for decision making in government
M-Governance is not a new
concept. The private sector has been greatly leveraging these of mobile
phones for delivery of value added services for the following which
however are mostly SMS based: Banking, Media, Airlines, Telecom,
Entertainment, News, Sports, Astrology, and Movie Tickets Etc.
M-governance has increased the
productivity of public service personnel, improving the delivery of
government information and services, increasing channels for public
interactions and Lower costs leading to higher participation of people.
Recent thrust to m-governance is being provided through USSD Services
Unstructured Supplementary Services Data (USSD) is a session based
service unlike sms which is store and forward service. It can be used by
the user to send command to an application in text format. USSD acts as
a trigger for the application
Government initiatives for m-governance
- Mobile Seva
It aims to provide
government services to the people through mobile phones and tablets. It
has been developed as the core infrastructure for enabling the
availability of public services through mobile devices.
Mobile Seva enables
the integration of the mobile platform with the common e-Governance
infrastructure consisting of State Data Centers (SDCs), State Wide Area
Networks (SWANs), State and National Service Delivery Gateways
It enables a
government department to integrate both web and mobile based services
seamlessly and enhances the access to electronic services tremendously
leveraging the very high penetration of mobile phones, especially in
A Mobile Applications Store (m-App Store) has
also been developed by DeitY as part of Mobile Seva. The Mobile
Governance Portal and the m-App Store can be accessed at
http://mgov.gov.in/. The m-Appstore currently hosts over 240 live mobile
applications. The live applications can be downloaded and installed
free of cost on a mobile phone by any person.
project, “mobile seva” has won the second prize at the prestigious
United Nations’ Public Services Awards in the category “Promoting Whole
of Government Approaches in the Information Age” for Asia Pacific.
- A few years ago,
Kerala launched ‘Dr. SMS,’ an m-health information system, for
providing information on medical facilities available in the locality of
- Goa followed,
with a mobile governance initiative for issuing alerts for receipt of
government applications and complaints and status tracking.
Next came Maharashtra. It adopted a similar traffic management system through mobile alerts.
A laudable initiative launched by the Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation in September tries to use technology in a mobile phone-based Intelligent Garbage Monitoring System enables sanitary supervisors to report the status of cleaning of garbage bins through their GPS-enabled mobile phones. Centralised reports as well as those of individual bins can be generated with the system.
Advantages of e-governance
Following are the advantages of E-Governance
Speed: Technology makes communication speedier. Internet, Phones, Cell Phones have reduced the time taken in normal communication.
Most of the Government expenditure is appropriated towards the cost of
stationary. Paper-based communication needs lots of stationary,
printers, computers, etc. which calls for continuous heavy expenditure.
Internet and Phones makes communication cheaper saving valuable money
for the Government.
Use of ICT makes governing profess transparent. All the information of
the Government would be made available on the internet. The citizens can
see the information whenever they want to see. But this is only
possible when every piece of information of the Government is uploaded
on the internet and is available for the public to peruse. Current
governing process leaves many ways to conceal the information from all
the people. ICT helps make the information available online eliminating
all the possibilities of concealing of information.
Once the governing process is made transparent the Government is
automatically made accountable. Accountability is answerability of the
Government to the people. It is the answerability for the deeds of the
Government. An accountable Government is a responsible Government.
Convenience: E-Government brings public services to citizens on their schedule and their venue.
Improved Customer Service: E-Government allows to redeploy resources from back-end processing to the front line of customer service.
Increased access to information:
E-Government improves the accessibility of government information to
citizens allowing it become an important resource in the making the
decisions that affect daily life and so it helps in empowerment of
Disadvantages of e-governance
Electronic governments also consist on certain disadvantage. The main
disadvantage of an electronic government is to move the government
services into an electronic based system. This system loses the person
to person interaction which is valued by a lot of people.
In addition, the implementation of an e-government service is that, with many technology based services, it is often easy to make the excuse (e.g. the server has gone down) that problems with the service provided are because of the technology.
The implementation of an e government does have certain constraints. Literacy of the users and the ability to use the computer, users who do not know how to read and write would need assistance. An example would be the senior citizens. In general, senior citizens do not have much computer education and they would have to approach a customer service officer for assistance. And also in case of rural people, it gives scope for middle man, who distort the information.
Studies have shown that there is potential for a reduction in the usability of government online due to factors such as the access to Internet technology and usability of services and the ability to access to computers
Even though the level of confidence in the security offered by government web sites are high, the public are still concerned over security, fear of spam from providing email addresses, and government retention of transaction or interaction history. There has been growing concern about the privacy of data being collected as part of UID project. The security of cyber space and misuse of data is still holding back the citizens to full adaptation of Aadhar card.
Challenges in e-governance
There are large numbers of
potential barriers in the implementation of e-Governance. Some hindrance
in the path of implementation, like security, unequal access to the
computer technology by the citizen, high initial cost for setting up the
e government solutions and resistance to change. Challenges identified
as trust, resistance to change, digital divide, cost and privacy and
Trust can be defined along
two dimensions: as an assessment of a current situation, or as an innate
personality traitor predisposition. The implementation of public
administration functions via e-government requires the presence of two
levels of trust. The first is that the user must be confident,
comfortable and trusting of the tool or technology with which they will
interact. The second dimension of trust pertains to trust of the
There has to be a balance between
ensuring that a system prevents fraudulent transactions and the burden
that extensive checks can take place on people who are honest.
information on military veterans was compromised when a
computer containing their personal information was lost. This type
of incident can erode trust and user confidence in government systems.
Trust, along with financial security, are two critical factors limiting
the adoption of e-government services.
Resistance to change
The innovation diffusion theory
states that over time an innovation will diffuse through a population,
and the rate of adoption will vary between those who adopt early,
referred to as early adopters and to those who adopt the innovation much
later, referred to as ―laggards.
The resistant to change
phenomenon can explain much of the hesitation that occurs on the part of
constituents in moving from a paper based to a Web-based system for
interacting with government.
Citizens, employees and
businesses can all have their biases with respect to how transactions
should be processed. However, government entities and public policy
administrators cannot ignore the changes that occur as a result of the
implementation of information and communication technology (ICT
Education about the value of the
new systems is one step toward reducing some of the existing resistance.
It can also be particularly useful for a leader or manager, to buy into
the new system at an early stage in the adoption process
The digital divide refers to the
separation that exists between individuals, communities, and businesses
that have access to information technology and those that do not have
Social, economic, infrastructural and ethno-linguistic indicators provide explanations for the presence of the digital divide.
Economic poverty is closely related to limited information technology resources
An individual living below
poverty line does not afford a computer for himself to harness the
benefits of e-government and other online services. As the digital
divide narrows, broader adoption of e-government in the public domain
becomes possible. Economic poverty is not the only cause of digital
divide. It can also be caused by the lack of awareness among the people.
Even some of the economic stable people don’t know about the scope of e
Awareness can only help to bring
users to that service delivery channel once. It cannot guarantee
sustained use of the system unless the system is also designed in such a
way as to deliver satisfactory outcome. Procedures need to be
simplified to deliver concrete benefits and clear guidelines provided to
encourage their use by the actual end users and reduce user’s
dependence on middlemen/intermediaries
Cost is one of the most important
prohibiting factor that comes in the path of e-governance
implementation particularly in the developing countries like India where
most of the people living below the poverty line. Elected officers and
politician don’t seem to be interested in implementing e-governance
Privacy and Security
There will be three basic
levels of access exists for e-government stakeholders: no access to a
Web service; limited access to a Web-service or full-access to a Web
service, however when personal sensitive data exists the formation of
the security access policy is a much more complex process with legal
consideration. With the implementation of e-government projects,
effective measures must be taken to protect sensitive personal
information. A lack of clear security standards and protocols can limit
the development of projects that contain sensitive information such as
income, medical history.
We have seen how the concept of e-governance and m-governance has evolved in Indian scenario and how much it is required for transparency and accountability on the part of government and at the same time it is also a toll to increase the participation of people in policy making by empowering them with the right information at right time. The penetration of internet, telecommunication services in India has increased in the last decade and this gives a ray of hope to the citizens of India to fight with the long persisting problems of poverty, corruption, regional disparity and unemployment. But at the same time, due to slow pace of project completion, red-tape and resistance from the side of government employees and citizens too has not given the desired result.